Opioids, sometimes called narcotics, are a type of drug. They include strong prescription pain relieverssuch as oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and tramadol. The illegal drug heroin is also an opioid.
NCBI Bookshelf. Elizabeth Y. Schiller ; Amandeep Goyal ; Oren J. Authors Elizabeth Y.
Exposure to opioids typically occurs through ingestion but also can result from transdermal absorption, inhalation via aerosolization, or injection. Clinical effects of opioid poisoning result from central nervous system and respiratory system depression manifesting as lethargy or coma, decreased respiratory rate, miosis, bradypnea, and possibly apnea Skip directly to site content Skip directly to options Skip directly to A-Z link.
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Minus Related s. Clinical description Exposure to opioids typically occurs through ingestion but also can result from transdermal absorption, inhalation via aerosolization, or injection.
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Laboratory criteria for diagnosis Biologic : A case in which opioids are detected in a biological fluid such as urine Opiate toxicity definition hospital or commercial laboratory tests. Fentanyl derivatives and certain other synthetic and semi-synthetic opioids e. Probable : A clinically compatible case in which a high index of suspicion credible threat or patient history regarding location and time exists for opioid exposure, or an epidemiologic link exists between this case and a laboratory-confirmed case.
Confirmed : A clinically compatible case in which laboratory tests have confirmed exposure.
Additional resources Nelson L, Olson D. Chapter Opioids. Sporer KA. Acute heroin overdose. Ann Intern Med ; Boyer EW. Management of Opioid Analgesic Overdose.
N Engl J Med. NIOSH manual of analytical methods [online]. Sampling and analytical methods [online].
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